On the difference between hope and faith...and the need for both
Trailing the gods home

A neighborly, kind, and conserving economy

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From "It all Turns on Affection," a lecture delivered by Wendell Berry in 2012:

"The term 'imagination' in what I take to be its truest sense refers to a mental faculty that some people have used and thought about with the utmost seriousness. The sense of the verb 'to imagine' contains the full richness of the verb 'to see.' To imagine is to see most clearly, familiarly, and understandingly with the eyes, but also to see inwardly, with 'the mind’s eye.' It is to see, not passively, but with a force of vision and even with visionary force. To take it seriously we must give up at once any notion that imagination is disconnected from reality or truth or knowledge. It has nothing to do either with clever imitation of appearances or with 'dreaming up.' It does not depend upon one’s attitude or point of view, but grasps securely the qualities of things seen or envisioned.

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"I will say, from my own belief and experience, that imagination thrives on contact, on tangible connection. For humans to have a responsible relationship to the world, they must imagine their places in it. To have a place, to live and belong in a place, to live from a place without destroying it, we must imagine it. By imagination we see it illuminated by its own unique character and by our love for it. By imagination we recognize with sympathy the fellow members, human and nonhuman, with whom we share our place. By that local experience we see the need to grant a sort of preemptive sympathy to all the fellow members, the neighbors, with whom we share the world. As imagination enables sympathy, sympathy enables affection. And it is in affection that we find the possibility of a neighborly, kind, and conserving economy.

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"Obviously there is some risk in making affection the pivot of an argument about economy. The charge will be made that affection is an emotion, merely 'subjective,' and therefore that all affections are more or less equal: people may have affection for their children and their automobiles, their neighbors and their weapons. But the risk, I think, is only that affection is personal. If it is not personal, it is nothing; we don’t, at least, have to worry about governmental or corporate affection. And one of the endeavors of human cultures, from the beginning, has been to qualify and direct the influence of emotion. The word 'affection' and the terms of value that cluster around it -- love, care, sympathy, mercy, forbearance, respect, reverence -- have histories and meanings that raise the issue of worth. We should, as our culture has warned us over and over again, give our affection to things that are true, just, and beautiful. When we give affection to things that are destructive, we are wrong. A large machine in a large, toxic, eroded cornfield is not, properly speaking, an object or a sign of affection."

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"No doubt," Berry adds, "there always will be some people willing to do anything at all that is economically or technologically possible, who look upon the world and its creatures without affection, and therefore as exploitable without limit.

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"Against that limitlessness, in which we foresee assuredly our ruin, we have only our ancient effort to define ourselves as human and humane. But this ages-long, imperfect, unendable attempt, with its magnificent record, we have virtually disowned by assigning it to the ever more subordinate set of school subjects we call 'arts and humanities' or, for short, 'culture.' Culture, so isolated, is seen either as a dead-end academic profession or as a mainly useless acquisition to be displayed and appreciated 'for its own sake.' This definition of culture as 'high culture' actually debases it, as it debases also the presumably low culture that is excluded: the arts, for example, of land use, life support, healing, housekeeping, homemaking.

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"I don’t like to deal in categorical approvals, and certainly not of the arts. Even so, I do not concede that the 'fine arts,” in general, are useless or unnecessary or even impractical. I can testify that some works of art, by the usual classification fine, have instructed, sustained, and comforted me for many years in my opposition to industrial pillage.

"But I would insist that the economic arts are just as honorably and authentically refinable as the fine arts. And so I am nominating economy for an equal standing among the arts and humanities. I mean, not economics, but economy, the making of the human household upon the earth: the arts of adapting kindly the many human households to the earth’s many ecosystems and human neighborhoods. This is the economy that the most public and influential economists never talk about, the economy that is the primary vocation and responsibility of every one of us."

(To read Berry's excellent essay in full, go here.)

P1350092The passage above is from"It All Turns on Affection" by Wendell Berry (2012 Jefferson Lecture,  The National Endowment for the Humanities). The poem in the picture captions is from The Way It Is: New & Selected Poems by William Stafford (Graywolf Press, 1998). All rights reserved by the authors.

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